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Eye Anatomy and Mechanics

Eye Anatomy

How Does the Eye Work?: The Anatomy and Mechanics of the Eye

Cornea: The cornea is the clear part in the front of the eye - the window of the eye. It allows light to pass through and come to focus on the retina. The cornea must remain clear to provide good vision. The cornea can be transplanted to cure corneal blindness.

Pupil: A round opening in the Iris (the colored section) that allows light to pass through.

Lens: A clear, layered structure shaped like a large lentil (about 10 mm in diameter) that is attached to muscles, which contract or relax to change the shape of the lens. The changing lens shape helps light to be focused in response to the need for clarity.

Vitreous Humor: A clear, jelly-like substance that acts as a filler material for the larger, posterior (back) portion of the eye.

Retina: Located in the back of the eye, light will enter the retina where the rod and cone cells will be stimulated to set off a chain of split-second chemical reactions converting light to electrical impulses.

Macula: The small central part of the retina. This area is responsible for producing sharp, detail vision and color vision.

Optic Nerve: The bundle of retinal fibers that exits the back of the eye and transports electrical impulses to the brain where they are interpreted in the primary visual cortex.